Introduction Sola scriptura is arguably the most foundational point of disagreement underlying the nearly five-hundred year rift between Catholic and Protestant Christians.
Oral argument and Closing argument Legal arguments are spoken presentations to a judge or appellate court by a lawyer, or parties when representing themselves of the legal reasons why they should prevail. Oral argument at the appellate level accompanies written briefs, which also advance the argument of each party in the legal dispute.
A closing argument, or summation, is the concluding statement of each party's counsel reiterating the important arguments for the trier of fact, often the jury, in a court case.
A closing argument occurs after the presentation of evidence.
Political argument Political arguments are used by academics, media pundits, candidates for political office and government officials.
Political arguments are also used by citizens in ordinary interactions to comment about and understand political events. Political scientist Samuel L. Popkin coined the expression " low information voters " to describe most voters who know very little about politics or the world in general.
Interpretive reading essay practice, a " low information voter " may not be aware of legislation that their representative has sponsored in Congress. A low-information voter may base their ballot box decision on a media sound-bite, or a flier received in the mail. It is possible for a media sound-bite or campaign flier to present a political position for the incumbent candidate that completely contradicts the legislative action taken in the Capitol on behalf of the constituents.
When this happens, the constituency at large may have been duped or fooled. Nevertheless, the election result is legal and confirmed. Savvy Political consultants will take advantage of low-information voters and sway their votes with disinformation because it can be easier and sufficiently effective.
Fact checkers have come about in recent years to help counter the effects of such campaign tactics. Psychological aspects[ edit ] Psychology has long studied the non-logical aspects of argumentation.
For example, studies have shown that simple repetition of an idea is often a more effective method of argumentation than appeals to reason. Propaganda often utilizes repetition.
Empirical studies of communicator credibility and attractiveness, sometimes labeled charisma, have also been tied closely to empirically-occurring arguments.
Such studies bring argumentation within the ambit of persuasion theory and practice. Some psychologists such as William J.
McGuire believe that the syllogism is the basic unit of human reasoning. A central line of this way of thinking is that logic is contaminated by psychological variables such as "wishful thinking", in which subjects confound the likelihood of predictions with the desirability of the predictions.
People hear what they want to hear and see what they expect to see. If planners want something to happen they see it as likely to happen. If they hope something will not happen, they see it as unlikely to happen.
Thus smokers think that they personally will avoid cancer, promiscuous people practice unsafe sex, and teenagers drive recklessly. Argument fields[ edit ] Stephen Toulmin and Charles Arthur Willard have championed the idea of argument fields, the former drawing upon Ludwig Wittgenstein's notion of language gamesSprachspiel the latter drawing from communication and argumentation theory, sociology, political science, and social epistemology.
For Toulmin, the term "field" designates discourses within which arguments and factual claims are grounded. Thomas Goodnight has studied "spheres" of argument and sparked a large literature created by younger scholars responding to or using his ideas.
This is not a quest for some master language or master theory covering all specifics of human activity. Field theorists are agnostic about the possibility of a single grand theory and skeptical about the usefulness of such a theory. Theirs is a more modest quest for "mid-range" theories that might permit generalizations about families of discourses.
Toulmin's contributions[ edit ] By far, the most influential theorist has been Stephen Toulminthe Cambridge educated philosopher and student of Wittgenstein. An alternative to absolutism and relativism[ edit ] Toulmin has argued that absolutism represented by theoretical or analytic arguments has limited practical value.
Absolutism is derived from Plato's idealized formal logic, which advocates universal truth; thus absolutists believe that moral issues can be resolved by adhering to a standard set of moral principles, regardless of context.
By contrast, Toulmin asserts that many of these so-called standard principles are irrelevant to real situations encountered by human beings in daily life.Imagine you have been asked to write an essay on any event in US or European history. You choose the topic, write a good essay, submit it and fail to get the highest urbanagricultureinitiative.com, what’s the problem?
Your essay has no mistakes, it does have a coherent structure, introduction, and conclusion. Further Study. Test your knowledge of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest with our quizzes and study questions, or go further with essays on the context and background and . Tennessee Law Review; A Critical Guide to the Second Amendment, by Glenn Harlan Reynolds.
According to Keith Mathison, over the last one hundred and fifty years Evangelicalism has replaced sola scriptura, according to which Scripture is the only infallible ecclesial authority, with solo scriptura, the notion that Scripture is the only ecclesial authority.
The direct implication of solo scriptura is that each person is his own ultimate interpretive authority. Whew, that was an intense read! I gave five stars because after careful consideration I realized that Alan Blooms interpretive essay really helped me to understand the The Republic to a different degree.
Analytical and Interpretive Essays for History Courses In many history courses, professors will ask you to write analytical and interpretive essays that rely on the introduction so that the reader can assess its validity while reading the body of the essay.