Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Early and Middle Adulthood Essay Sample Although the theory of development by Erik Erikson maintained that humans develop in psychosocial stages, it is the psychological adjustments people undertake in regard to lifestyle and aging that mark significant areas of development. The transition through early adulthood and middle adulthood demand resilience in the pursuit of intimacy, specific function, and quality of life.
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Abstract The decade following secondary school is pivotal in setting the stage for adulthood functioning and adjustment. We focus on the big five social role domains of early adulthood: Aims were to identify latent classes of social role configurations in early adulthood, examine demographic and late adolescent educational predictors of these classes, and explore contemporaneous health and adjustment correlates focusing on life satisfaction, economic independence, and substance use.
Four classes with very similar characteristics and prevalence were identified in the two cohorts who were born 12 years apart: Late adolescent demographic and educational variables and mids variables were related to class membership. Results evidenced notable similarities and some differences across cohorts.
Discussion focuses on how roles facilitate or inhibit each other and the potential diversity of optimal patterns of transitions to adulthood. Introduction The decade following high school is pivotal in setting the stage for adulthood functioning and adjustment.
In descriptions of the nature of the transition to adulthood in contemporary Western societies, psychological models tend to emphasize self-directed exploration e. Arnettdemographic traditions highlight the impact of social structure on the life course e. Fussell and Furstenbergand interdisciplinary approaches focus on the interaction of historical, cultural, and structural constraints with personal agency in the creation of individualized life courses e.
Despite some differences, dominant models of the decade following the completion of mandatory education share three important areas of agreement.
First, it is broadly agreed that the last 50 years have heralded a later median ages at the initiation of traditional adult roles Amato et al ; Arnett ; Bynner ; Settersten ; b greater within- and between-country heterogeneity in the timing, order, and resulting patterns at any given point in time Bell et al ; Bynner ; Cook and Furstenberg ; Cooksey and Rindfuss ; Fussell and Furstenberg ; Schulenberg et al ; and c increased individualization of the life course, resulting in more choices and a correspondingly greater need for personal agency and soft skills such as teamwork and networking Beck ; Bynner ; Cook and Furstenberg Second, dominant models note that formal social institutions and informal social norms provide less structure after the end of secondary school, with individuals able to take on a diverse set of potential life changes, including school completion, employment, residential independence, intimate cohabitation or marriage, and parenthood Cook and Furstenberg ; Fussell and Furstenberg ; Schulenberg and Zarrett ; Settersten Third, scholars agree that the 20s are dense with transitions to adult work and family roles, and are pivotal for developing healthy and fulfilling lifestyles Schulenberg et al ; Settersten et al ; Shanahan In this paper, we focus on role configurations of early adults in their mids.
We explore the heterogeneity of social roles and how these are combined in the lives of participants in two nationally representative samples of American youth in their last year of secondary education, who were followed longitudinally into adulthood.
Data are drawn from the ongoing Monitoring the Future study, focusing here on two cohorts who graduated from high school 12 years apart. We focus on the big five social role domains of early adulthood Settersten Our three aims are to: The introduction focuses on the background to each of the three aims in turn.
Role patterns in young adulthood Aim 1 What is known about prototypic role configurations for young adults? Osgood and colleagues classified young adults in a longitudinal study of a regional sample of white working- and middle-class youth, based on their role involvement in five adult social roles at age 24 in approximatelyidentifying six paths to adulthood.
They tended to be employed and to have higher levels of education. They had the highest levels of education. Their typical level of education was to have attained some college, but not a degree. Osgood et al provide an important foundation for the present analyses due to its person-centered approach, identification of cohesive role-based configurations in early adulthood, and examination of correlates of role combinations.
In Aim 1, we seek to extend their analyses in a longitudinal community-based sample by using similar indicators of social roles with the addition of current student status, employing a nationally representative US sample of high school seniors followed longitudinally, examining contemporaneous correlates in the mids, and replicating results among young adults in similar s and earlier s historical time periods.
Predictors of young adult role patterns Aim 2 Who is likely to inhabit specific configurations of social roles in young adulthood? Past research suggests the key importance of education in shaping the timing and sequence of adult role transitions Sandefur et al Specifically, those who pursue higher education tend to initiate the adult roles of partner, parent, and employee later; during this time many receive significant assistance in the form of parental financial support and subsidies Schoeni and Ross Education tends to confer significantly higher incomes DeNavas-Walt et al ; Goldin and Katzand has arguably become more important historically as careers have become less secure and more variable and self-directed Beck ; Settersten Identify various role changes that occur during early and middle adulthood.
Get the answers you need, now! Through their roles in the family, at work, and in the community, middle adults have to nurture, educate, and care for children, adolescents, young adults, and older adults.
The strains of middle adulthood result largely from difficulties in balancing many roles and striving to navigate through predictable as well as sudden role transitions. Social role patterning in early adulthood in the USA: adolescent predictors and concurrent wellbeing across four distinct configurations.
Identify various role changes that occur during early and middle adulthood. Examine the immediate and future impact of healthy and unhealthy habits practiced during early and middle adulthood.
Use a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources. As individuals move through early and middle adulthood, a variety of physical changes take place in the body.
begins during early adulthood. Around the age of 30, many changes begin to occur in different parts of the body. For example, the lens of the eye starts to stiffen and thicken, resulting in changes in vision (usually affecting the.
What physical changes occur during middle and late adulthood? Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities, and cardiac output begin to decline in the late twenties and continue to decline throughout middle adulthood (roughly age 40 to 65) and late adulthood (the years after 65).