All human groups, from organized religions to outlaw motorcycle clubs, typically maintain norms that disallow random or unprovoked aggression by individuals against other individuals within the group, and a system of penalties for violating group norms. However, crime in a society such as twenty-first century North America cannot, for a variety of reasons, be explained in terms of conflict between property owners and non-property owners, or between the industrial proletariat and the holders of capital. Yet the difficulties involved with applying a conventional Marxist analysis to the question of crime in an advanced industrial society does not eliminate the possibility of understanding crime as a manifestation of class conflict per se.
The dominant frameworks argue that culture is a set of values, beliefs, and actions that are learned through interactions with others. From this perspective, culture is primarily transmitted to individuals through intimate peer groups and across generations to provide support or encouragement for actions that may be unacceptable in the larger society.
In addition, cultural forces demonstrate what behaviors are valued and those that are perceived as unimportant or not supported.
Subcultures may form in opposition to the dominant culture and support behaviors that deviate from larger social norms, or stem from differences between social classes, gender, or geographic locations.
In some perspectives, the dominant culture may define the behaviors of another culture as criminal or deviant in order to protect their interests or marginalize a minority group. Thus, culture conflicts can lead to the identification or creation of criminal groups.
Finally, societal responses to the media can foster the belief that a deviant behavior is rampant and force legislative action to identify and define an act as criminal.
Regardless of the accuracy of media claims, larger cultural forces can stimulate the belief that criminal or deviant activities are a threat to safety. Thus, cultural theories encompass a broad spectrum of thought about crime and criminality.
General Overviews There are a number of general criminological theory texts that provide some discussion of cultural theories. A few popular options include Akers and Sellerswhich explores all manner of theory with some focus on social learning theories, while Lilly, et al.
The edited works of Cullen and Agnew and Adler and Adler also provide key insights into multiple theoretical frameworks and empirical research in this area. These sources can be used as a standalone text for undergraduate courses in either introductory criminology or as the anchor text in more specialized courses in criminological theory.
Social power, context, and interaction, 6th ed. This work is an excellent reader for theory and general deviance classes. Introduction, evaluation, and application, 5th ed. Appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Comprehensive edited volume with fundamental readings in criminological research, including various cultural theories.
This text is an excellent option for theory courses at all levels of study.
In this culture of poverty—which passes from generation to generation—the poor feel negative, inferior, passive, hopeless, and powerless. The “blame the poor” perspective is stereotypic and not applicable to all of the underclass. The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism, is a major framework of sociology theory. This perspective focuses on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction. Conflict theory emphasizes the role of coercion and power. Some theories argue a direct link between gender and crime while others argue an indirect one. Even though much of the information is based on delinquency, it can provide a foundation for understanding adult crime.
Cullen, and Richard A. Context and consequences, 4th ed. Bernard, and Jeffrey B. Theoretical criminology, 5th ed. Criminological theory, 5th ed.
Upper Saddle River, NJ:In this essay, Daniel Núñez examines the prison escape of Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán Loera using the theories of Durkheim and Merton to illustrate the sociological relationship between crime and morality.
Theories of Deviance Deviance is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society. Deviance can be criminal or non‐criminal.
Critical Theories: Marxist, Conflict, and Feminist. Although all sociological theories of crime contain elements of social conflict, consensus theories tend to judge Critical Theories: Marxist, Conflict, and Feminist.
Another concept that is central to . structures in understanding of crime as against the relevance of cultural structures.
This paper concludes that Japanese culture has strongly contributed to the low crime . Cultural relativism refers to the idea that the values, knowledge, and behavior of people must be understood within their own cultural context.
This is one of the most fundamental concepts in sociology, as it recognizes and affirms the connections between the greater social structure and trends and. Crime and Deviance - Theoretical Perspectives - Subcultural Theories Essay Theoretical Perspectives: Subcultural Theories * Highlight marginal groups in society, such as young working class males living in urban areas.