What Causes Domestic Violence? Abusers may feel this need to control their partner because of low self-esteem, extreme jealousy, difficulties in regulating anger and other strong emotions, or when they feel inferior to the other partner in education and socioeconomic background. Others may have an undiagnosed personality disorder or psychological disorder. Still others may have learned this behavior from growing up in a household where domestic violence was accepted as a normal part of being raised in their family.
Causes and Consequences of Violence Against Women Causes A vital part of understanding a social problem, and a precursor to preventing it, is an understanding of what causes it. Research on the causes of violence against women has consisted of two lines of inquiry: Research has sought causal factors at various levels of analysis, including individual, dyadic, institutional, and social.
Studies of offending and victimization remain conceptually distinct except in sociocultural analysis in which joint consideration is often given to two complementary processes: Many theorists and researchers have sought to answer the question, "Why does this particular man batter or sexually assault?
Among them have been biologic factors such as androgenic hormonal influences; evolutionary theo- Page 50 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Understanding Violence Against Women.
The National Academies Press. Recently, researchers armed with multivariate statistical analysis have tested complex models of violence with multiple factors to explain battering McKenry et al. Also new are integrative metatheories of intimate violence that consider the impact of historical, sociocultural, and social factors on people, including the processes whereby social influences are transmitted to and represented within individual psychological functioning, including cognition and motivation White, in press.
Many of the theories about the causes of perpetrating violence against women are drawn from the literature on aggression and general violence. Both the research on general violence and that on violence against women suggest that violence arises from interactions among individual biological and psychosocial factors and social processes e.
Studies of male batterers have found that some batterers confine their violent behavior to their intimates but others are violent in general Fagan et al. The research suggests that, at least in some cases, there may be differences in the factors that cause violence against women and those Page 51 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Much more work is needed in order to understand in what ways violence against women differs from other violent behavior.
Such understanding will be particularly important for developing preventive interventions. Although current understanding suggests that violent behavior is not caused by any single factor, much of the research has focused on single causes.
Therefore, in the following sections several salient findings emerging from each single-factor domain are highlighted to illustrate how each contributes something to the causal nexus of perpetration of violence. They are followed by a brief review of efforts to build multifactor models.
Theories of Violent Offending Individual Determinants Evolution From an evolutionary perspective, the goal of sexual behavior is to maximize the likelihood of passing on one's genes.
This goal involves maximizing the chances that one will have offspring who themselves will survive to reproduce.
In ancestral environments, optimum male and female strategies for successfully passing on one's genes often did not coincide because the amount of parental investment required by males is smaller than that required by females. Males were best served by mating with as many fertile females as possible to increase their chance of impregnating one of them; females, who have the tasks of pregnancy and nurturing the young, are often better served by pair bonding.
Sex differences in current human mating strategies may be explained as having been shaped by the strategies that created reproductive success among human ancestors.
A number of studies have shown that young adult males are more interested in partner variety, less interested in committed long-term relationships, and more willing to engage in impersonal sex than are young adult females Clark and Hatfield, ; Symons Page 52 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This finding is consistent with the optimum evolutionary strategy for males of mating with as many fertile females as possible.
It is theorized that males who have difficulty obtaining partners are more likely to resort to sexual coercion or rape. Extensive evidence of forced mating among animals has been documented Ellis, Evolutionary theory also has been used to explain aspects of intimate partner violence. Case histories from battered women often mention the extreme sexual jealousy displayed by their batterers Walker, ; Browne,and extreme sexual jealousy is a common motive of men who kill their wives Daly and Wilson, There is much debate over how much influence evolutionary factors have on modern human beings.
Even those who favor evolutionary explanations acknowledge that additional factors are necessary to explain sexual assault and intimate partner violence.
Evolutionary explanations of rape are also criticized as not explaining the proportion of rapes lacking reproductive consequences because they involve oral or anal penetration or victims who are prepubescent or male. Physiology and Neurophysiology The physiological or neurophysiological correlates of violence and aggression that have received particular attention are the functioning of steroid hormones such as testosterone; the functioning of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA ; neuroanatomical abnormalities; neurophysiological abnormalities; and brain dysfunctions that interfere with cognition or Page 53 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This literature has been well reviewed in other sources e.
In considering this literature, it should be remembered that much of the evidence comes from animal studies and that generalizing from animals to humans is not straightforward.
The evidence that comes from studies of human subjects only shows correlations, so any causal interpretations are tenuous. Furthermore, changes in hormonal, neurotransmitter, and neurophysiological processes may be consequences of violent behavior or victimization, as well as being causes of those behaviors Reiss and Roth, ; van der Kolk, A recent comprehensive literature review Archer, concluded that the majority of studies showed that high testosterone levels tend to covary with high probabilities of aggressive behaviors, dominance status, and pathological forms of aggression in nonhuman mammals, but that the picture for humans is not as clear.Effects of Television violence and Children Outline: urbanagricultureinitiative.com STAEMENT: Although the television serves as a form of entertainment, when you abuse its use, and make it a habit to watch, it gives negative effects on the behavior of children especially in their brain’s development.
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), also referred to as domestic violence, occurs when an individual purposely causes harm or threatens the risk of harm to any past or current partner or spouse. Domestic Violence | The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Learn more about getting informed on Child Abuse → Not what you’re looking for?
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Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect Every child who has experienced abuse or neglect will have their own response to the trauma. While some children have long-lasting effects, others are able to .
The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children. If you or someone you know needs child witness to violence information or resources, you may want to contact one or more of the following programs: AWAKE (Advocacy for Women and Kids in Emergency) Children's Hospital.
A vital part of understanding a social problem, and a precursor to preventing it, is an understanding of what causes it. Research on the causes of violence against women has consisted of two lines of inquiry: examination of the characteristics that influence the behavior of offenders and consideration of whether some women have a heightened vulnerability to victimization.