Adult learning theories: the self-directed of learning essay

Overview[ edit ] Typical adult learning theories encompass the basic concepts of behavioral change and experience.

Adult learning theories: the self-directed of learning essay

Page history last edited by Gayla S. Keesee 1 year, 5 months ago Just as there is no one theory that explains how humans learn, no single theory of adult learning has emerged to unify the field. As a teacher, writer, and leader in the field of adult education, Knowles was an innovator, responding to the needs of the field as he perceived them and, as such, he was a key figure in the growth and practice of adult education throughout the Western world.

However, as many critics have noted, both his theory and practice embodied his own value system. It is, as Knowles noted, a set of assumptions providing one piece of the adult learning puzzle.

The term itself was not new.

Adult learning theories: the self-directed of learning essay

European adult educators had been using it consistently to refer to both the practical aspects of adult teaching and learning and to the academic study of adult education.

From Pedagogy to AndragogyKnowlesp. The second edition of his book, however, marked a rethinking in Knowles original conception of andragogy as characterizing only adult learners—as indicated in the change in subtitles from Andragogy Versus Pedagogy to From Pedagogy to Andragogy.

His most recent conclusion was that the use of andragogical and pedagogical principles is to be determined by the situation and not by the age of the learner.

The two dimensions of andragogy as elaborated by Knowles are its assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners and the process elements of adult education that stem from these characteristics.

He initially related four basic assumptions and added a fifth and sixth in later publications. As people mature, they move being a dependent personality toward being more self-directed Experience: As people mature, they amass a growing set of experiences that provide a fertile resource for learning Readiness to learn: As people mature, they are more interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their jobs or personal lives Orientation to learning: As people mature, their time perspective changes from gathering knowledge for future use to immediate application of knowledge.

As such, adult learners become more problem-centered rather than subject-centered Knowles, Motivation to learn: As people mature, they become more motivated by various internal incentives, such as need for self-esteem, curiosity, desire to achieve, and satisfaction of accomplishment Relevance: As people mature, they need to know why they need to learn something Knowles, Furthermore, because adults manage other aspects of their lives, they are capable of directing or, at least, assisting in the planning and implementation of their own learning.

Teachers have a responsibility to encourage and nurture this movement. Adults have a deep psychological need to be generally self-directing, but they may be dependent in certain temporary situations. Furthermore, people attach more meaning to learning they gain from experience than those they acquire passively.

Accordingly, the primary techniques in education are experiential ones—laboratory experiments, discussion, problem-solving cases, field experiences, etc. Readiness to Learn People become ready to learn something when they experience a need to learn it in order to cope more satisfyingly with real-life tasks and problems.

The educator has a responsibility to create conditions and provide tools and procedures for helping learners discover their "needs to know. Orientation to Learning Learners see education as a process of developing increased competence to achieve their full potential in life.Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.

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Homepage: urbanagricultureinitiative.com HOLISTIC EDUCATION: A NEW PARADIGM FOR TEACHING. Aim of Education: Personality Integration, Creative Intelligence and Enlightenment or 'Happiness'. Lifelong learning is the "ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated" pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons.

Therefore, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship, and personal development, but also self-sustainability, as well as competitiveness and employability. Evolved from the term "life-long learners", created by Leslie Watkins and used by Professor.

Adult learning theories: the self-directed of learning essay

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